Globalisation And Primary Education Development In Tanzania: Prospects And Challenges

  1. Overview of the Country and Primary Education System:

Tanzania covers 945,000 square kilometres, including approximately 60,000 square kilometres of inland water. The population is about 32 million people with an average annual growth rate of 2.8 percent per year. Females comprise 51% of the total population. The majority of the population resides on the Mainland, while the rest of the population resides in Zanzibar. The life expectancy is 50 years and the mortality rate is 8.8%. The economy depends upon Agriculture, Tourism, Manufacturing, Mining and Fishing. Agriculture contributes about 50% of GDP and accounting for about two-thirds of Tanzania’s exports. Tourism contributes 15.8%; and manufacturing, 8.1% and mining, 1.7%. The school system is a 2-7-4-2-3+ consisting of pre-primary, primary school, ordinary level secondary education, Advanced level secondary, Technical and Higher Education. Primary School Education is compulsory whereby parents are supposed to take their children to school for enrollment. The medium of instruction in primary is Kiswahili.

One of the key objectives of the first president J.K. Nyerere was development strategy for Tanzania as reflected in the 1967 Arusha Declaration, which to be ensuring that basic social services were available equitably to all members of society. In the education sector, this goal was translated into the 1974 Universal Primary Education Movement, whose goal was to make primary education universally available, compulsory, and provided free of cost to users to ensure it reached the poorest. As the strategy was implemented, large-scale increases in the numbers of primary schools and teachers were brought about through campaign-style programs with the help of donor financing. By the beginning of the 1980s, each village in Tanzania had a primary school and gross primary school enrollment reached nearly 100 percent, although the quality of education provided was not very high. From 1996 the education sector proceeded through the launch and operation of Primary Education Development Plan – PEDP in 2001 to date.

  1. Globalization

To different scholars, the definition of globalization may be different. According to Cheng (2000), it may refer to the transfer, adaptation, and development of values, knowledge, technology, and behavioral norms across countries and societies in different parts of the world. The typical phenomena and characteristics associated with globalization include growth of global networking (e.g. internet, world wide e-communication, and transportation), global transfer and interflow in technological, economic, social, political, cultural, and learning areas, international alliances and competitions, international collaboration and exchange, global village, multi-cultural integration, and use of international standards and benchmarks. See also Makule (2008) and MoEC (2000).

  1. Globalization in Education

In education discipline globalization can mean the same as the above meanings as is concern, but most specifically all the key words directed in education matters. Dimmock & Walker (2005) argue that in a globalizing and internalizing world, it is not only business and industry that are changing, education, too, is caught up in that new order. This situation provides each nation a new empirical challenge of how to respond to this new order. Since this responsibility is within a national and that there is inequality in terms of economic level and perhaps in cultural variations in the world, globalization seems to affect others positively and the vice versa (Bush 2005). In most of developing countries, these forces come as imposing forces from the outside and are implemented unquestionably because they do not have enough resource to ensure its implementation (Arnove 2003; Crossley & Watson, 2004).

There is misinterpretation that globalization has no much impact on education because the traditional ways of delivering education is still persisting within a national state. But, it has been observed that while globalization continues to restructure the world economy, there are also powerful ideological packages that reshape education system in different ways (Carnoy, 1999; Carnoy & Rhoten, 2002). While others seem to increase access, equity and quality in education, others affect the nature of educational management. Bush (2005) and Lauglo (1997) observe that decentralization of education is one of the global trends in the world which enable to reform educational leadership and management at different levels. They also argue that Decentralization forces help different level of educational management to have power of decision making related to the allocation of resources. Carnoy (1999) further portrays that the global ideologies and economic changes are increasingly intertwined in the international institutions that broadcast particular strategies for educational change. These include western governments, multilateral and bilateral development agencies and NGOs (Crossley & Watson 2004). Also these agencies are the ones which develop global policies and transfer them through funds, conferences and other means. Certainly, with these powerful forces education reforms and to be more specifically, the current reforms on school leadership to a large extent are influenced by globalization.

Pastor Chris Oyakhilome Is True Inspiration

Pastor Chris Oyakhilome is President of Christ Embassy as well as Believers’ LoveWorld Inc. Pastor Chris Oyakhilome is a minister, healing priest, educator, writer that has published best sellers, and TV host. He has assiduously focused on changing the lives of individuals around the world for more than 30 years. He has helped so many individuals find the path towards a triumphant and purposeful life. He brings forth enormous teachings and therapeutic movements which are done in various cities. His enormous teachings and therapeutic movements bring together more than 3.5 million individuals. He ministers one of the prevalent gatherings in Africa. Chris Oyakhilome is very passionate about sharing the Word of God in a basic format to help individuals discover a beneficial religious outlook. His teachings consistently help put faith into the hearts of millions of individuals. He provides each and every individual with the understanding of virtues and truths. Pastor Chris Oyakhilome is a very prolific author. Chris Oyakhilome established the first round-the-clock Christian Satellite Network. The Christian Satellite Network was established in the year 2003. Through his television ministry he has helped millions grasp and understand salvation. He has also been a host for Atmosphere for Miracles. This program showcases the extraordinary and helps individuals to believe in miracles. This devoted, hardworking, and dedicated individual also established the Inner City Mission of Christ Embassy.

Christ Embassy is a worldwide ministry. Christ Embassy has an amazing vision. The vision of Christ Embassy is to bring forth the glory of God’s heavenly existence to countries around the world. Christ Embassy focuses on bringing forth faith. Christ Embassy helps individuals to feel the love within while being in tune with the Holy Spirit on a daily basis. The mission of Christ Embassy is to bring forth generations of women and men that will follow the path to accomplish God’s visions. Christ Embassy takes part in helping children that are feeling a sense of hopelessness. It helps children to be nourished, housed, cultivated, attired, and given the opportunity to follow each and every one of their dreams. The Christ Embassy also contributes to the many astonishing and amazing crusades that have been an inspiration and have made such an impact on so many individuals. The Christ Embassy contributes towards very influential and positive change on a daily basis.

The Zimbabwe event has always been a truly inspiring and successful event. Many individuals secure his or her spot the night before. Pastor Chris has stated before that Zimbabwe is a special and unique country and that the Lord’s existence will be radiating off of him during this miraculous and inspirational event. He has stated that there will be a reveal of special news during the event in Zimbabwe. There have been several arrangements done before this worldwide ecclesiastical service takes place in Zimbabwe. During this time Zimbabwe’s church has been having prayer gatherings. Also, during this time many individuals are inspired. Many believe that the event is an indication that blessings will come upon Zimbabwe after this worldwide ecclesiastical service. The service is expected to change the lives of many individuals while receiving the divine presence of God.

In conclusion, Pastor Chris is an inspirational, dedicated, accomplished, and religious leader that has shaped the lives of many individuals worldwide.